Major events occurred in iran dating back to 2016 bce
After the last ruler of the 11th dynasty, Mentuhotep IV, was assassinated, the throne passed to his vizier, or chief minister, who became King Amenemhet I, founder of dynasty 12.A new capital was established at It-towy, south of Memphis, while Thebes remained a great religious center.King Menes founded the capital of ancient Egypt at White Walls (later known as Memphis), in the north, near the apex of the Nile River delta.The capital would grow into a great metropolis that dominated Egyptian society during the Old Kingdom period.This chaotic situation was intensified by Bedouin invasions and accompanied by famine and disease.From this era of conflict emerged two different kingdoms: A line of 17 rulers (dynasties nine and 10) based in Heracleopolis ruled Middle Egypt between Memphis and Thebes, while another family of rulers arose in Thebes to challenge Heracleopolitan power. C., the Theban prince Mentuhotep managed to topple Heracleopolis and reunited Egypt, beginning the 11th dynasty and ending the First Intermediate Period.On the heels of the Old Kingdom’s collapse, the seventh and eighth dynasties consisted of a rapid succession of Memphis-based rulers until about 2160 B.
Two other pyramids were built at Giza for Khufu’s successors Khafra (2558-2532 B. The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a stable central government; the kingdom faced no serious threats from abroad; and successful military campaigns in foreign countries like Nubia and Libya added to its considerable economic prosperity.Neolithic (late Stone Age) communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian arts and crafts, technology, politics and religion (including a great reverence for the dead and possibly a belief in life after death). C., two separate kingdoms were established: the Red Land to the north, based in the Nile River Delta and extending along the Nile perhaps to Atfih; and the White Land in the south, stretching from Atfih to Gebel es-Silsila.A southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts to conquer the northern kingdom around 3200 B. A century later, King Menes would subdue the north and unify the country, becoming the first king of the first dynasty.The Middle Kingdom reached its peak under Amenemhet III (1842-1797 B.C.); its decline began under Amenenhet IV (1798-1790 B.
Pyramid-building reached its zenith with the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo.